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毛白杨

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法桐

法桐

  

  法桐(Platanus)为法桐科乔木,是法桐科法桐属约7种植物的通称。分布于东南欧、印度和美洲,中国引入栽培的有3种,供观赏用和作行道树。法桐树形雄伟,枝叶茂密,是世界著名的优良庭荫树和行道树,有“行道树之王”之称。

  1简介

  法桐,即可专称“二球法桐”,也是法桐属植物的通称,包括一球法桐(美国梧桐)、二球法桐(英国梧桐)、三球法桐(法桐)三种。

  法桐俗称"法桐",在植物分类学上属法桐科,科下仅有一属即法桐属,属下约7种,原产东南欧、印度及美洲。原产从欧洲中部巴尔干半岛到亚洲西部伊朗。也有植物学家认为其产地西到西班牙,东到喜玛拉雅山脉东麓。2005年,起世界各地有人工引种栽培。

  2形态特征

  落叶大乔木,高可达35米。枝条开展,树冠广阔,呈长椭圆形。树皮灰绿或灰白色,不规则片状剥落,剥落后呈粉绿色,光滑。柄下芽。单叶互生,叶大,叶片三角状,长9~15厘米,宽9~17厘米,3~5掌状分裂,边缘有不规则尖齿和波状齿,基部截形或近心脏形,嫩时有星状毛,后近于无毛。花期4~5月,头状花序球形,球形花序直径2.5~3.5厘米;花长约4毫米;萼片4;花瓣4;雄花(4~8个雄蕊);雌花(有6个分离心皮)。球果下垂,通常2球一串。9~10月果熟,坚果基部有长毛。

  3生长习性

  喜光。喜湿润温暖气候,较耐寒。适生于微酸性或中性、排水良好的土壤,微碱性土壤虽能生长,但易发生黄化。根系分布较浅,台风时易受害而倒斜。抗空气污染能力较强,叶片具吸收有毒气体和滞积灰尘的作用。本种树干高大,枝叶茂盛,生长迅速,易成活,耐修剪,所以广泛栽植作行道绿化树种,也为速生材用树种;对二氧化硫、氯气等有毒气体有较强的抗性。法桐科法桐属分三种,分别为一球法桐、二球法桐和三球法桐。俗称分别是美国梧桐、英国梧桐和法桐。不同的地区,由于俗名是由引进地点的不同来命名的,因此有点紊乱,大部分是按上述所述。

  但中国引入栽培的仅3种,即二球法桐(Platanus ×acerifolia)也称英桐和该杂交种的亲本一球法桐(Platanus occidentalis)又称美桐、三球法桐(Platanus orientalis)又称法桐。现在我们通常把这三个种统称"法桐"。

  4分布状况

  法桐引入中国栽培已有一百多年历史,从北至南均有栽培,以上海、杭州、南京、徐州、青岛、九江、武汉、郑州、西安等城市栽培的数量较多,生长较好。法桐具有良好的杂种优势,生长迅速,繁殖容易,叶大荫浓,树姿优美,有净化空气的作用,是一种很好的城市和农村“四旁”绿化树种。法桐是阳性速生树种,抗逆性强,不择土壤,萌芽力强,很耐重剪,抗烟尘,耐移植,大树移植成活率极高。对城市环境适应性特别强,具有超强的吸收有害气体、抵抗烟尘、隔离噪音能力,耐干旱、生长迅速。

必威官网亚洲体育   据文献记载法桐(三球)在中国晋代时即从陆路传入中国,被称为祛汗树、净土树。相传印度高僧鸠摩罗什入中国宣扬佛法时携入栽植,西安市西南户县鸠摩罗什庙曾有两株大树,直径达3米,上世纪50年代尚有一株成活,其寿命已达一千六、七百年(在原产地土耳其有四千年的古树),虽然传入中国较早,但长时间未能继续传播。近代法桐(指一球即美桐和二球即英桐)大量传入中国约在上世纪一、二十年代,主要由法国人种植于上海的法租界内,故称之为"法桐",简称"法桐"或"法梧",其实既非法国原产亦非梧桐。中国目前普遍种植的以杂种“英桐(即二球)”最多。



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